Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of help/TracEnvironment


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Feb 3, 2017, 6:31:48 AM (4 years ago)
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trac
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  • help/TracEnvironment

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     1= The Trac Environment
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
     5
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
     7Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
     8
     9Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     10
     11== Creating an Environment
     12
     13A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     14{{{#!sh
     15$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     16}}}
     17
     18`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
     19
     20=== Useful Tips
     21
     22 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
     23
     24 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     25 
     26 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using optional the arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
     27
     28 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     29
     30 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by specifying a configuration file at the time the environment is created, using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     31
     32{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     33**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     34
     35This is a common beginners' mistake.
     36It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     37}}}
     38
     39== Database Connection Strings
     40
     41You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     42
     43Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     44
     45=== SQLite Connection String
     46
     47The connection string for an SQLite database is:
     48{{{
     49sqlite:db/trac.db
     50}}}
     51where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
     52
     53=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     54
     55The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
     56{{{
     57postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     58}}}
     59
     60If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
     61{{{
     62postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
     63}}}
     64
     65On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     66{{{
     67postgres://user:password@/database
     68}}}
     69
     70or a specific one:
     71{{{
     72postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
     73}}}
     74
     75See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
     76Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     77{{{#!sh
     78$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     79$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
     80}}}
     81
     82When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     83
     84Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     85{{{#!sh
     86$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     87$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     88}}}
     89
     90Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     91{{{
     92postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
     93}}}
     94
     95=== MySQL Connection String
     96
     97The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
     98{{{
     99mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     100}}}
     101
     102== Source Code Repository
     103
     104A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
     105
     106There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
     107
     108== Directory Structure
     109
     110An environment consists of the following files and directories:
     111
     112 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
     113 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     114 * `files`
     115  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
     116 * `conf`
     117  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     118 * `db`
     119  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     120 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     121 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     122 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     123 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     124  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
     125
     126----
     127See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide