Changes between Initial Version and Version 7 of Management/TheFiveDysfunctionsOfaTeam


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Timestamp:
Feb 19, 2017, 1:56:46 AM (5 years ago)
Author:
Vijay Varadan
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  • Management/TheFiveDysfunctionsOfaTeam

    v1 v7  
     1= The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
     2**Author**: Patrick Lencioni[[br]]
     3Feb 02 2017
     4
     5[[Image(htdocs:images/books/the-five-dysfunctions-of-a-team.jpg, align=center, nolink)]]
     6
     7[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, inline, unnumbered)]]
     8
     9== Review
     10=== Verdict: [[Image(htdocs:icons/green-up-arrow.png, inline, nolink)]] **Recommended**
     11This book is well worth the 5 hours I spent reading it. In my 10+ years of managing teams, I have encountered these dysfunctions & (bad?) behaviors in mid-level & senior-level management teams. So, even though the example used is of an executive team (C-level), the methods in the book to root out the behaviors applies at all levels of management. This would've been an invaluable read for me 12 years ago.
     12
     13=== The Good
     14* The fable style of writing is engaging without dramatics. Clean & crisp; a fast read. I quite enjoyed it.
     15* There's a separate section "The Model" which outlines the five dysfunctions, symptoms thereof, their impact & an outline of potential solutions which are practical. So, if you don't like fables, skip directly to this section.
     16* I've used most of the techniques suggested to overcome the dysfunctions & can confirm that they work in practice. A few were new to me & I'll have to see how well they apply.
     17
     18=== The Bad
     19* The fable style of writing may not appeal to some folks, in which case skip to "The Model" section for the actual meat of the information. To be honest, I liked the fable style.
     20* The information within each dysfunction section within "The Model" section could be better structured to clearly & succinctly separate out causes, motivations behind behaviors indicative of causes, mitigation. Though there are separate sub-sections, the information still feels scattered about & repeated (repetition may be due to inter-relatedness, not sure).
     21
     22=== The Ugly
     23* Nothing.
     24
     25== Notes
     26**Disclaimer**: These are primarily written for my own future reference, but they may be useful to you, either to decide if you want to read / buy the book or as something to revisit. The information is not comprehensive, not in the least - so, please don't use it as a substitute for actually reading the book. As with all my content, some is verbatim from the original source, opinion may be interspersed & of course, **YMMV**.
     27
     28=== Pyramid of 5 Dysfunctions
     29[[Image(htdocs:images/books/five-dysfunctions-pyramid.png, align=center, nolink)]]
     30//[https://iawir.wordpress.com/2012/07/26/the-five-dysfunctions-of-a-team/ Image source]//
     31
     32=== 1. Absence of Trust
     33//Trust is the confidence that their peers' intentions are good, & that here is no reason to be protective around the group.//
     34
     35==== Causes
     36* Instinctively, people compete with peers, don't want to seem weak by asking for help, are protective of their reputation & minimize / hide mistakes.
     37
     38==== Members of Teams with an Absence of Trust
     39* Conceal their weakness & mistakes from one another.
     40* Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback.
     41* Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility.
     42* Jump to conclusions about the intentions & aptitudes of others without attempting to clarify them.
     43* Fail to recognize & tap into one another's skills & experience.
     44* Waste time & energy managing their behaviors for effect.
     45* Hold grudges.
     46* Dread meetings & find reasons to avoid spending time together.
     47
     48==== Members of Trusting Teams
     49* Admit weaknesses & mistakes.
     50* Ask for help.
     51* Accept questions & input about their areas of responsibility.
     52* Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving at a negative conclusion.
     53* Take risks in offering feedback & assistance.
     54* Appreciate & tap into one another's skills & experiences.
     55* Focus time & energy on important issues, not politics.
     56* Offer & accept apologies w/o hesitation.
     57* Look forward to meeting & opportunities to work as a group.
     58
     59==== Overcoming Absence of Trust
     60* Requires shared experience over time, multiple instances of follow-through (build credibility), & an in-depth understanding of what each team member brings to the table.
     61* Personal histories exercise: Low risk, share information about non-sensitive information like number of siblings, hometown, unique challenges of childhood, favorite hobbies, first job & worst job. Encourages greater empath & discourages inaccurate behavioral attributions.
     62* Team effectiveness exercise: Team members need to identify sinble most important contribution that each peer makes to the team **and** one area that must be improved / eliminated for the good of the team.
     63* Personality & behavioral preference profiles: e.g. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Everything DiSC - provide practical & scientifically valid behavioral descriptions of team members. Tools require participation of a licensed consultant to avoid misuse.
     64* 360-degree feedback: Higher risk since peers needs to make specific judgments & provide constructive criticism. Must be divorced entirely from compensation & formal performance evaluation to avoid political undertones, & fear impact on compensation & on repercussions.
     65* Experiential team exercises: Not sure what these are. Need to investigate.
     66* Revisit individual developmental areas to ensure momentum is sustained - atrophy can lead to erosion of trust.
     67* Leader must demonstrate **genuine** vulnerability first to encourage building of trust.
     68* Leader must create an environment that does not punish vulnerability - no chastisement from anyone for admission of weakness / failure, discourages trust, however subtly.
     69
     70==== Connection to Fear of Conflict
     71Fear of punishment due to misinterpretation of what is said as destructive / critical when engaged in a passionate debate.
     72
     73=== 2. Fear of Conflict
     74//Healthy long-term relationships require productive conflict, especially in business.//
     75
     76==== Causes
     77* Desire to avoid hurt feelings.
     78* Misguided thinking that avoiding conflict increases efficiency.
     79
     80Productive ideological conflict is very different from destructive fighting & interpersonal politics. Ideological conflict is about concepts & ideas, not personality-focused, mean-spirited attacks.
     81
     82==== Teams that Fear Conflict
     83* Have boring meetings (? don't get this point).
     84* Create environments where back-channel politics & personal attacks thrive.
     85* Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success.
     86* Fail to tap into all the opinions & perspectives of team members.
     87* Waste time & energy with posturing & interpersonal risk management.
     88
     89==== Teams that Engage in Conflict
     90* Have lively, interesting meetings (? again, don't get this point).
     91* Extract & exploit the ideas of all team members.
     92* Solve real problems quickly.
     93* Minimize politics.
     94* Put critical topics on the table for discussion.
     95
     96==== Overcoming Fear of Conflict
     97* Mining: Members of teams which tend to avoid conflict need to extract buried agreements, call out sensitive issues & force the team to work through them - requires objectivity & commitment to stay with the conflict till resolved.
     98* Real-time permission: coach one another not to retreat from healthy debate. Remind people when they become uncomfortable with level of discord that it's necessary - need to be careful not to come across as patronizing.
     99* Other tools: Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, commonly know as TKI - Need to investigate, no idea about this tool.
     100* Leader should forego the desire to protect members from harm - avoid prematurely interrupting disagreements which prevents team members from developing conflict management skills.
     101* Leader should demonstrate restraint & allow resolution to occur naturally - can be messy.
     102* Leader should actively take on conflict when necessary & productive.
     103
     104==== Connection to Lack of Commitment
     105How can a team buy into a decision & confidently commit to anything until it has engaged in productive conflict & members' perspectives & opinions have been considered?
     106
     107=== 3. Lack of Commitment
     108//Commitment = clarity + buy-in//
     109
     110==== Causes
     111* Desire for consensus.
     112* Need for certainty.
     113
     114Dysfunctional teams try to hedge bets & delay important decisions till they're certain of correctness. Analysis-paralysis breeds lack of confidence. Primary reason for dangerous ripple effects on subordinates - clashes will occur when employees reporting to different execs are marching to different tunes.
     115
     116==== A Team that Fails to Commit
     117* Creates ambiguity among the team about direction & priorities.
     118* Watches windows of opportunity close due to excessive analysis & unnecessary delay
     119* Breeds lack of confidence & fear of failure
     120* Revisits discussions & decisions again & again
     121* Encourages second-guessing among team members
     122
     123==== A Team that Commits
     124* Creates clarity around direction & priorities.
     125* Aligns the entire team around common objectives.
     126* Develops an ability to learn from mistakes.
     127* Takes advantage of opportunities before competitors do.
     128* Moves forward without hesitation.
     129* Changes direction without hesitation or guilt.
     130
     131==== Overcoming Lack of Commitment
     132* Cascading messaging: Explicitly review key decisions & agree to what to communicate to employees / other constituents.
     133* Deadlines: Honor deadlines with discipline & rigidity. Also applies to milestones, since that's how misalignment is identified & addressed before costs become too great.
     134* Contingency & worst-case scenario analysis: Reduces fear that costs of incorrect decision are survivable.
     135* Low-risk exposure therapy: Teams with dysfunctions tend to overvalue research & analysis. Use low-risk situations to demonstrate success of decisiveness once they have had substantial discussion with sufficient information.
     136* Leader makes the decision in case of impasse - //a// decision is better than //no// decision. Better to be bold & wrong, & to change direction just as boldly. No waffling!
     137* Leader needs to push for closure on issues & must enforce adherence to schedules.
     138
     139==== Connection to Avoidance of Accountability
     140How can someone be held accountable for something that was not made clear in the first place?
     141
     142=== 4. Avoidance of Accountability
     143//Willingness of team members to call out one another for performance or behaviors that might hurt the team.//
     144
     145==== Causes
     146* Members' interpersonal discomfort.
     147* Tendency to avoid difficult conversations.
     148
     149==== A Team that Avoids Accountability
     150* Creates resentment among team members who have different standards of performance.
     151* Encourages mediocrity.
     152* Misses deadlines & key deliverables.
     153* Places an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline.
     154
     155==== A Team that Holds One Another Accountable
     156* Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to improve.
     157* Identifies potential problems quickly by questioning one another's approaches without hesitation.
     158* Establishes respect among team members who are held to the same high standards.
     159* Avoids excessive bureaucracy around performance management & corrective action.
     160
     161==== Overcoming Avoidance of Accountability
     162* Publication of goals & standards: No one can ignore agreements kept in the open.
     163* Simple & regular progress reviews: Ensures people take action despite inclination not to.
     164* Team rewards: Create a culture of accountability by shifting rewards to team achievement instead of individual performance. Members will pitch in when another is not pulling his / her weight.
     165* Leader needs to be careful to not be the only source of discipline - this is indicative of members not holding one another accountable.
     166* Leader is arbiter of discipline when team fails - this should be the exception, not the rule. Be clear that accountability is a shared team responsibility, not relegated to a consensus approach.
     167
     168==== Connection to Inattention to Results
     169Absence of accountability results in team members focusing on personal advancement instead of collective results.
     170
     171=== 5. Inattention to Results
     172//Team members care about things other than collective group goals.//
     173
     174==== Causes
     175* Lack of specific objectives.
     176* Lack of focus on specific objectives.
     177
     178Results are not just profit, revenue or shareholder returns. Executives' goals (destination, strategy) & objectives (route, tactics) are representative of team results - these ultimately drive profit. Focus shifts to teams status & individual status when focus is not on outcome-based. Also, there is no cure for a lack of desire to win.
     179
     180==== A Team that is not Focused on Results
     181* Stagnates / fails to grow.
     182* Rarely defeats competitor.
     183* Loses achievement-oriented employees.
     184* Encourages team members to focus on their own careers & individual goals.
     185* Is easily distracted.
     186
     187==== A Team that Focuses on Collective Results
     188* Retains achievement-oriented employees.
     189* Minimizes individualistic behavior.
     190* Enjoys success & suffers failure acutely (meaning they are not oblivious when failing).
     191* Benefits from individuals who subjugate their own goals / interests for the good of the team.
     192* Avoids distractions.
     193
     194==== Overcoming Inattention to Results
     195* Make results clear & only rewards behaviors & actions that contribute to those results.
     196* Public declaration of results: Team works with strong desire to achieve published results.
     197* Results-based rewards: Tie rewards, especially compensation, to achieving specific outcomes.
     198* Leader must set the tone for a focus on results. A fish rots from the head down, so leader must value results.
     199* Leader must reward & give recognition only to those who make real contributions to the achievement of group goals.